The Leaders of the Haitian Revolution. The first black nation to successfully revolt against slavery.
Toussaint Louverture was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen led to the establishment of the independent black state of Haiti, transforming an entire society of slaves into a free, self-governing people. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World. In the last decade of the 18th century, Toussaint L’Ouverture, led a revolutionary movement that liberated St. Domingue, his
homeland in the Caribbean, from colonial tyranny and declared an end to slavery. Toussaint, a self educated former slave, defeated Europe’s best trained forces including armies from France, England and Spain and France. After securing its independence, St.Domingue renamed itself Haiti and became the first Republic in the world to declare all men and women free and equally entitled to govern their own lives. Toussaint’s achievement still ranks as one of the most extraordinary events in human history.
Alexandre Pétion was born in Haiti to a Haitian Mulatresse mother and a wealthy white French father, who withheld his name because the baby was too dark. The name Petion came from the French-patois nickname Pichon (which means my little one) Like other gens de couleur libre with wealthy father, Alexandre was sent to France in 1788 to be educated and study at the Military Academy in Paris. Pétion returned to Saint Domingue as a young man to take part in the créole expulsion of the British Armie from Saint Domingue (1798-1799). Along with Jean Jacques Dessalines, Pétion with his mulatto soldiers join the slave in order to fight the French Army for the Independence of Haiti.
Henry Christophe was a key leader in the Haitian Revolution. Winning independence from France in 1804. On February 17, 1807 after the creation of a separate nation in the north, Henry Christophe was elected President of Haiti. Half white, Christophe had been a slave a waiter in a public hotel at Cap Français (now Cap Haitien) where he made use of his opportunities to gain a knowledge of men and of the world.When Leclerc’s expedition arrived to retake Saint Domingue, it was Christophe who warned the French general not to land his men on the island, threatening to burn Cap Français to the ground and to fight on the ashes. Henry Christophe was illiterate, but he learned to speak English and French fluently. In 1811 Henry made the nothern state of Haiti a kingdom and was ordained emperor by Arch Bishop of Milot Corneil Breuil. Henry Christophe was called the constructor, he built for his own use six châteaux, eight palaces and the massive Citadelle Laferriere.
On January 1st, 1804, following the actual massacre of the remaining French planters, from the city of Gonaives, Jean Jacque Dessalines officially proclaimed the country’s independence, renamed it Haiti, the very first name given to it by the indigenous Taino/Arawaks. Under Dessalines command, Haiti became the First Black Republic on the face of the earth, the second independent Nation in the Americas; and undoubtedly one of the most remarkable moment in the global history of the human race. On January 1st, 1804, it was in Haiti that the Declaration of Independence as a genre began its trajectory from a single Nation’s document to a global history. Dessalines made sure that the written Document would be called ” Acte de L’Independance” Act of Independence rather than following the US, to call it “Declaration de L’Independance”, Declaration of Independence. The freedom of the people was not acquired by a Declaration, but by Actions.